For him, urban renewal projects could be implemented in three different ways: first, they could involve acquiring and clearing a slum or blighted area and disposing of the land for redevelopment in accordance with planned uses; second, they could consist in the rehabilitation and conservation of structures in such an area by property owners, accompanied by improvement of community facilities by the local government; and, third, they could follow any combination of both. These emergency housing blocks were either demol ished to make way for the construction of new blocks or were converted into self-contained units. The private sector, motivated by the rapidly increasing land prices and building regulations which allow the replacement of low-rise buildings by high-rise developments, has been actively involved in the redevelopment of existing private sector estates (Yeh, 1990). Number 16 of 1987 URBAN RENEWAL (AMENDMENT) ACT, 1987. 6 Mr Cervellatti was the chief architect for the historical preservation of the old city of Bologna. AN ACT TO AMEND THE URBAN RENEWAL ACT, 1986, AND TO PROVIDE FOR RELATED MATTERS. The renewal of Paris by Haussmann is thought to be the first large scale urban renewal project implemented. (2) For the purposes of this Act, a person is an associate of another person if— (a) the other person is a relative of the person or of the person's spouse or domestic partner; or (b) the other person— It is there fore important to maintain the city's homogeneity and continuity even after its renewal. Before the 1980s, the main approach to urban renewal in developing countries was in the form of squatter eradication and relocation of the population to low-cost housing projects (Laquian, 1984). Reference to Act in section 372A(2) of Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997. The criticisms of the Urban Renewal Program were many. To provide feedback or request an accessible version of a document please contact us or phone 13 22 81. Including massive demolition, slum clearance, and rehabilitation, urban renewal proceeded initially from local and state legislation, which in Illinois included the Neighborhood Redevelopment Corporation Act of 1941 (amended in 1953), the Blighted Areas Redevelopment Act of 1947, the Relocation Act of 1947, and the Urban Community Conservation Act of 1953. Both movements placed emphasis on the transformation of urban centers through the creation of urban parks and the construction of monumental public buildings. Urban renewal as known in the recent times began in the 1900s and many cities after that have adopted the idea to regenerate their city streets and amenities. In 2016, the Colorado Legislature updated the Act, in Colorado Revised Statute 31-25-103, to prevent blight. This is a traditional service provided by the City in an effort to address urban regeneration within its urban centres and brownfield sites. Define Urban Renewal Act. Hong Kong and Singapore also developed elaborate renewal programs which evolved from large slum clearance schemes to inner-city renewal and redevelopment of public housing estates, under the management of public-private partnerships. Also, it directed too much investment to central business districts and not enough to positive actions in the neighborhoods and gave too little attention to social concerns (Holcomb and Beauregard, 1981). Squatters whose dwelling did not appear on the surveys were relocated to temporary housing until they were eligible for public housing. Shabby, working class mews were acquired by middle-class people, who converted them to elegant and expensive homes. Today, housing rehabilitation has become the dominant activity in urban renewal in the United States (Varady, 1986). The tax relief available under the Act operates during the incentive period for the relevant SDA. For Holcomb and Beauregard (1981), the sense of continuity of place is necessary to people's sense of reality, and the city should apprehended over time as a pattern of high continuity with many distinctive parts which are clearly interconnected. 2 The eligibility for squatters to be relocated as permanent tenants in public estates was based upon surveys of desig nated squatter areas. Community upgrading appeared as a way of improving living conditions in informal settlements (Laquian, 1984). For him, the aim of renewal should be " to maintain continuity , both of the community itself and the image of history and of nature that is held by its members" (Lynch, 1981: 260). Present, past, and future history are all equally important in the making of a modern city (Van der Ryn & Calthorpe, 1986). The clearance destroyed not only old build ings, but a functioning social system. In this paper … that the Housing Act of 1949,1 which launched urban renewal on its way, is the most significant piece of legislation placed on the federal statute books since World … 2. Most governments started to acknowledge the socio-economic impacts of slum demolition, while substand ard housing, including squatter shanties, was recognized as part of the housing stock. [22nd July, 1987] BE IT ENACTED BY THE OIREACHTAS AS FOLLOWS: The … In the United Kingdom, however, it is argued that it is worth spending up to 75% of the cost of rebuilding owing to the reduced loss to the housing stock (UNCHS, 1982). The following section summarizes the possible approaches to urban renewal in residential areas, based on this brief review of urban renewal policies around the world. Urban renewal was designed to remove slums and blighted conditions by demolishing old buildings and constructing new ones in their stead (Nelson, 1988). Settlements were upgraded by improving the infrastructure and legalizing land tenure (Faerstein, 1989). Urban renewal can either involve re-accommodation of the original population on the site after its renewal or its transfer to another part of the city through relocation. La forme urbaine à une époque donnée peut apparaître comme un état transitoire entre un passé et un futur. Urban renewal is often presented as a natural process through which the urban environment, viewed as a living entity1, undergoes transformation. 4.Urban renewal business: Refers to the implementation of reconstruction, renovation, or maintenance within the renewal unit. Culture has been defined as the whole social mode of life, or the mode of life of the people in general (Azevedo, in Teixeira, 1990), and as the collective expression of shared history, traditions, values and ways of life (Nozick, 1992). Federal support for the construction of new towns was requested as part of the 1964 Housing Act, ... Urban renewal experience has shown that for many slum-dwellers, there are more urgent needs than good housing. But as Anderson shows, urban renewal has hardly justified these claims either. URBAN RENEWAL (TAX RELIEF') THE URBAN RENEWAL (TAX RELIEF) ACT ~ets 14 of 1995, 31 of 2010. "Following the progress of history and the passage of time, old cities are in a constant process of metamorphosis and unavoidably have to face the necessity of continuous regeneration" (Hou, in Conzen, 1986: 223). The American Housing Act of 1949 (P.L. Urban litera ture uses, often without definition, terms such as urban regeneration, urban revitalization, gentrification, neighborhood renewal, rehabilitation, and renovation. It involved very many-diverse interests and extended over a period of many years3 I The introduction of new infrastructure to old and dense neighborhoods can also be a difficult task. One is employment, and most of the opportunities for unskilled or semi-skilled work are in the city. Urban renewal often leads to the dissolution of urban communities and the loss of prox imity to friends and relatives. In this Act- Interpreta The scattering of families and friends was espe cially harmful to the many older people.". Claude H. Boistière, of the French Ministry of Reconstruction and Housing, identified the different approaches to urban renewal as rehabilitation, complete demolition and rebuilding, and a combination of both, considering conservation to be a form of rehabilitation (Boistière in Miller, 1959). Cervellatti 6 considers the historic core of a city as the "collective memory of the population", and, even with its internal contradictions, as the only truly modern, authentically livable part of the city (Cervellatti, in Hatch, 1984). There were several groups of workers and each group did one thing to the house and then moved on to the next. Such redevelopment approach has led to the displacement of original residents to new towns, at a distance from the city center (Yeh, 1990). The Urban Renewal (Tax Relief) Act, passed in 1995, established a framework of tax incentives available to those investing in the development and restoration of areas "suffering from blight or urban decay" and declared by the Minister to be a special development area ("SDA"). The preservation of the city's identity, community, local culture and natural and built environments, must be given special attention in the process of renewal. The following chapter familiarizes the reader with the Chinese context and provides background information on planning and housing issues in China. La ville est le lieu de transformations perpétuelles qui, à l'examen, apparaissent comme un processus continu. In China, urban renewal is a rather recent phenomenon which has been scarcely documented. In 1964, the Urban Renewal Program for the Central China Town was launched, with the aid of foreign consultants (Lim, 1983). According to Colborn (1963: 7), the 1949 Renewal Program defined urban renewal as: "the diversified efforts by localities, with the assistance of the Federal Govern ment, for the elimination and prevention of slums and blight, whether residential or non-residential, and the removal of the factors that create slums and blighting conditions.". By the end of the 1960s, most renewal policies began to totally discard large-scale slum clearance, and programs were reoriented towards rehabilitation and area improvement (Couch, 1990). The three different approaches are presented here in more detail. For developers, redevelopment represents maximum profit through the sale of new centrally -located units. This Act is enacted to promote a well-planned urban land redevelopment, revitalize urban functions, improve urban living environments and landscape for the public interest. However, to connect and engage local communities, to inject life into depressed neighbourhoods and to foster social and urban renewal, so to maximise the potential impact community art-based mural paintings can generate is New Urbanist principles and the values they engender have align with the apparent revival of U.S. neoconservatism over the recent decades. Contents. Better housing meant that the housing, Since competition from other countries was down due to the war, more jobs were created and some came with higher pay. Even when the residents are rehoused on the same site after its redevelopment, the transformation of the neighborhood beyond recognition has inevitable psycho logical impacts upon the community. The problem of multiple ownership of properties in Hong Kong, together with the necessity to acquire all the units in a multi-story building before it can be redeveloped, have resulted in small-scale in situ redevelopment, less profitable for private developers. As the human, social, and economic costs of clearance were slowly recognized, program funds gradually shifted to support rehabilitation more than demolition and reconstruction (Nelson, 1988). 81-171) was a landmark, sweeping expansion of the federal role in mortgage insurance and issuance and the construction of public housing. "Urban renewal entity" shall mean any urban renewal corporation or urban renewal association as defined herein or in the act to which this act is a supplement. This was more efficient then building one house at a time because the demand for housing was so high. Old buildings, monuments, parks, and neighborhoods, as well as the old pattern of the city which gives the city its unique character are necessary to maintain the city's vitality (Holcomb and Beauregard, 1981)(Van der Ryn & Calthorpe, 1986). Concerns for the physical and psychological well-being of the individual and the community are essential for sensitive renewal. Moreover, while the few areas suitable for AN ACT TO CONSOLIDATE AND REVISE THE LAW WITH RESPECT TO URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING IN THE PROVINCE (Assented to May 12, 2000) This Act may be cited as the Urban Renewal (Tax Short title.Relief) Act. Affected households were generally rehoused in public apartments under special arrangements and were given priority on the waiting list for public housing. For one thing, urban renewal is a slow process: the average project has taken twelve years to complete. The hous-ing act was the only new liberal social legislation enacted during the Truman presidency, yet its chief sponsor in Congress was a preemi-nent conservative Republican. means Ohio Revised Code Sections 725.01 through 725.11, together with related provisions of the Ohio Revised Code. Among the most important ele ments cited in the literature regarding the definition of the urban environment are: diversity, and con tinuity (Mumford, 1956) (Lynch, 1960) (Jacobs, 1961). It recognizes the value of old neighborhoods and, by preserving what is unique, ancient, and specifically local, it can also contribute to the development of the tourism indus try and stimulate the economy. Some even consider the historic core to represent the design model that will ultimately be used to transform the remainder of the city (Cervellatti, in Hatch, 1984). In his book The Future of Old Neighborhoods, Bernard J. Frieden (1964: 123) summarizes the social costs of redevelopment in these terms: "For tenants, owners, and businessmen alike, the destruction of the neighborhood exacted social and psychological losses. Under the Act, a municipality Laquian (1984) considers security of tenure and homeownership to be essential ways to encourage self-help and community-based upgrading efforts. [25th April, 1995.1 1. In developing countries, the process of urban renewal is still relatively new. In many in stances, old houses are so dilapidated and their original character lost after so many years that it is unrealistic to attempt to upgrade them and to raise their conditions to appropriate standards. Today, the central area has been completely redeveloped with shopping complexes, office towers, and apartment blocks, and the new high-rise Singapore has replaced the former colonial city. 5 The term gentrification is attributed to Ruth Glass, who described a phenomenon occurring in London in the early 1960's. In Singapore, urban renewal programs were initiated in the early 1960s, which consisted of systematic large-scale slum clearance and urban redevelopment of inner-ciy areas. 1990). As of November 1, 2018, the Long Term Tax Exemption-Urban Renewal Entities program is now part of the Office of Local Plannig Services.This program provides for the review of certificates of incorporation, limited partnership, or formation of urban renewal entities formed under the Long Term Tax Exemption Law (NJSA 40A:20-1 et seq.). 38 of 1969 この法令は翻訳されていません。日本語法令データはこちら。 (e-Gov法令検索) This law is not translated. Part 1—Preliminary. Some of the existing theoretical and ideological disagreements about urban change are thought to come, in part, from the fact that the terms used by different scholars reflect different perceptions of the phenomenon and its significance (Palen and London, 1984). The way these goals were carried out were trough tearing down areas and then rebuilding them. However, private investors were reluctant to participate because of the restrictions which oriented projects towards housing, not the most lucrative investment in the long run, and because projects took many years to complete, tying up capital for long periods. Many people disliked urban renewal, because it displaced many people and families. URBAN RENEWAL ACT, 1998 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS PART I Preliminary and General Section 1. De là proviennent les nombreuses interprétations de la ville, "organisme" possédant ses lois de développement.". Another is money, and some New York City slum residents recently refused to let … "Urban renewal" was a phrase popularized with the passage of the Housing Act of 1954, which made these projects more enticing to developers by, among other things, providing mortgages backed by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The renewal of war-damaged cities and towns all over Europe in the 1920s is consid ered the most extensive process of urban renewal in history, compressed into one single generation (Grebler, 1964). (i) Urban redevelopment promotion areas provided for in paragraph (1), Article 7 of the Urban Renewal Act; 例文帳に追加 一 都市再開発法第七条第一項の規定による市街地再開発促進区域 - 日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム We have also started technical, planning and While the governments can intervene to compensate victims for part of the economic costs of displacement, the psychological costs are less easily mitigated. The high economic, social and emotional costs paid by evicted residents have generally been written off as an unavoidable by-product of "progress" and a necessary consequence of moderni zation (Kazemian, 1991). Quick Shop Each One is Unique Urban Renewal Vintage Navy Track Pants €32.00. The problem of deteriorating urban neighborhoods has been recognized in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century and over the years, major efforts have been made to counteract decay and to rejuvenate cities throughout the country (Nelson, 1988). However, in recent years, the emergence of a global model has been threatening local identity, integrity and authenticity, and cities around the world have become increasingly uniform (Nozick, 1992). Nevertheless, it has acquired widespread and popular acceptance. House and Land Create your own great place with new purchase options from Hamilton is seen as a leader in urban renewal efforts and the service level is above standard. The history of the basic federal urban renewal statute-Title I of the Housing Act of x9492-was not exceptional in this regard. Urban renewal can be defined as a social and technical partnership based on the unification of the vision of politicians and designers and on the wide acceptance of the same by the community. Small-scale programs were encouraged to plan more comprehensively for redevelopment (Holcomb and Beauregard, 1981). According to UNCHS, some countries consider that if the cost of rehabilitation exceeds 1/6 of the cost or rebuilding, rebuilding is favored. After World War II, the losses sustained during the war triggered an increased consciousness of the historic continuum embodied in the urban scene of previous eras, and growing attention was given to conservation and rehabilitation of historical towns and city sections (Grebler, 1964). Urban renewal policies in The Netherlands already have a long history, which is characterised by varying attention for either smaller-scale (neighbourhood) or larger-scale (city) issues, and for either physical, social or economic questions. The first comprehensive move of the federal government towards urban renewal came with the Housing Act of 1949 (Colborn, 1963). Rehabilitation is often perceived as a complex and time-consuming process which is more difficult to implement than redevelopment. Short title. Urban renewal can be defined as a social and technical partnership based on the unification of the vision of politicians and designers and on the wide acceptance of the same by the community. Improving Sanitation in Coastal Communities... Evolution of Dwellings in Progressive Development Projects, Urban Renewal in Beijing, Observation and Analysis. On behalf of the ACT Government, The Suburban Land Agency delivers people-focussed residential estates and urban renewal projects in Canberra. AN ACT TO AMEND THE URBAN RENEWAL ACT, 1986, AND TO PROVIDE FOR RELATED MATTERS. Because the wordgentry implies a land-owning aristocracy, gentrification may be etymologically inappropriate. In developing countries, upgrading generally refers to a comprehensive developmental approach wherein the original population remains on the site and incrementally upgrades the neighborhood, with or without public assistance. Low-income residents were to be organized in order to plan for the physical, economic, and social rehabilitation of their own neighborhoods (Holcomb and Beauregard, 1981). This program had some goals in mind which all sounded too good to be true. URBAN RENEWAL ACT, 1998 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS PART I Preliminary and General Section 1. The term gentrification is commonly used to refer to changes in the composition of the neighborhood population, resulting in new social organizational patterns (Palen and London, 1984). Tenants are now rehoused in units acquired by the Corporation near the redevelopment site, and mortgages at a low interest rate are offered to the affected people to buy a new home. Past experience has demonstrated the need to view neighborhood regeneration as a comprehensive and integrated process. It consists of rehabilitation of what can realistically be saved, combined with reconstruction of new buildings in place of those beyond the reach of feasible rehabilitation (Yu Qingkang, 1988). The Urban Renewal Program for the Central China Town resulted in the redevelopment of all colonial neighborhoods, which consisted mainly of two- and three-story century-old shop houses, and in the relocation of all original residents and businesses. It thus requires variety and subtlety in policy responses (Couch, 1990). URBAN RENEWAL (TAX RELIEF') THE URBAN RENEWAL (TAX RELIEF) ACT ~ets 14 of 1995, 31 of 2010. The many facets of neighborhood life should be analyzed in the process of developing an urban renewal program (Colborn, 1963). Commencement. By 1972, a vast program of redevelopment of the resettlement estates built in the 1950s to re house squatters was introduced (Williams, 1979). Section 72 Dickson Urban Renewal. Urban renewal sparked civil rights demonstrations in the 1960s; the destruction of their property was seared into the minds of the black families who had lost homes, neighborhoods, and in some cases livelihoods at the hands of the government. In Europe, the evolution of renewal policies followed a similar pattern. Until the 1950s, flats and tenements were considered as a suitable form for replace ment of working class housing. The first public intervention into urban renewal in Hong Kong was in 1954, with the large-scale slum clearance scheme which followed the disastrous fire in Shek Kip Mei, one of the largest and most congested squatter areas in North Kowloon, leaving some 53,000 people homeless (Castells et al. From the standpoint of time and cost, rehabilitation is a sensible solution to the problem of neighborhood regeneration 4(Mirbod, 1984). It also leads to higher population density and improved services and infrastructures, which is highly desirable for modernizing inner-city areas (Zhu Zixuan, 1989). Urban culture can therefore be said to be closely related to the evolution of the relationship between the urban built environment and its social structure. Citizen participation is a recurring theme throughout all phases of the rehabilitation process. Redevelopment generally involves the relocation of the original population to another part of the city. The Urban Development Act of 1970 is legislation enforced through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) that introduced the … One of the Housing Act's main initiatives – "urban renewal" – destroyed about 2,000 communities in the 1950s and '60s and forced more than 300,000 families from their homes. It is based on preserving, repairing, and restoring the natural and man-made environ ments of existing neighborhoods. In general, new social links are not easily formed in large-scale mass-housing projects (Nozick, 1992). It is the development of a local life, a regional character, a civic spirit, a unique indi viduality, capable of course of growth and expansion, of improvement and develop ment in many ways, of profiting too by the example and criticism of others, yet always in its own way and upon its own foundations.". People need to know that their communities will continue to exist and be able to provide for the present and future needs of themselves and their children (Nozick, 1992). Structure of Urban Planning Basic Laws and Regulations The Comprehensive National Land Development Act of 1950 aimed for development-based quantitative expansion against the backdrop of socioeconomic situation of the time. Rehabilitation recognizes that the limited availability of funds for new construction and the serious housing shortage make the option of destroying already-existing housing appear both unaffordable and imprudent. 4. Chapter 121B, urban renewal agencies are authorized to take a range of actions to address disinvested and underutilized neighborhoods and substandard, … Urban renewal is a process by which a land, which is usually privately owned, is taken over by a municipality to reclaim the land for the benefit of the public. Overview The Urban Act grant program is open to all municipalities designated as economically distressed, public investment communities or urban centers. For more than one-hundred years, writers on architecture have returned to the pre-industrial town for models for a saner, more organic society. Urban Renewal Act To combat blight, Colorado passed the Urban Renewal Act, or the Act. 3 The 1966 Land Acquisition Act gave the state increased powers to acquire land, allowing it to purchase land speedily and at reasonable costs for public purposes. Urban renewal soon earned the reputation of being a "bulldozer approach", demolishing blighted areas to make room for luxury housing (Santiago, 1975). It therefore appears that a realistic renewal program must approach regeneration in a holistic way and be based upon a multi-disciplinary understanding of the social and economic forces affecting urban areas and the physical nature of towns and cities. As a result, urban renewal still consisted mainly of slum clearance and redevelopment. anisms of public housing and urban renewal to meet them. More babies meant more demand in bigger and better housing. Diversity and continuity appear to be essential components of the urban environment which must be preserved in the process of urban renewal. [1] It usually involves reconstruction of major city areas, such as residential and transportation use. Past experience has demonstrated the need to view neighborhood regeneration as a comprehensive and integrated process… Section 72 Dickson Urban Renewal Through a series of community engagement phases and activities we have heard a wide range of views on the future of Section 72 Dickson. It also discusses separately two of several major issues which recurrifigly give rise to changes in that legislation. 2. Gentrification is defined as the process by which middle- and upper-class people move to a neighborhood, attracted by its proximity to central business districts and replace the previous working-class inhabitants (Holcomb and Beauregard, 1981) (Varady, 1986). The Renewal Program had three main elements: slum prevention through neighborhood con servation and housing code enforcement; rehabilitation of structures and neighborhoods; and clear ance and redevelopment of structures and neighborhoods (Colborn, 1963). 7 Studies have demonstrated that when the fundamental form of a living unit is changed, behavior is radically affected (Mann, 1984). Urban Revitalization emerged in the 1970s as the dominant approach to urban renewal. The 1960s brought a gradual acknowledgment that spreading suburbanization might exacerbate city problems and that improving urban conditions required more than physical renewal (Nelson, 1988). Integration results in the creation of rich environments through the integration of new buildings within the exist ing neighborhoods and allows for the development of a new form of contemporary architecture with local characteristics, enriching the appearance of the old city while maintaining its identity. By the 1980s, many developing countries adopted an official policy of slum upgrading, realiz ing the potential for existing squatter settlements to be viable urban communities (Van Nostrand, 1982) (Faerstein, 1989). However, little is written about the psychological costs of the destruction of an environment to which one is emotionally attached. The disappearance of the physical and social manifestations of a particular culture would lead to the decline of this culture. However, the United States was among the first countries to develop specific national programs of urban renewal (Grebler, 1964). 4 Experts do not agree on the actual costs of rehabilitation compared with reconstruction. The goals were to eliminate substandard housing, revitalize city economies, construct better housing, and to reduce racial segregation. Concerning the impacts on the population, residential rehabilitation can take place in two dis tinct ways: gentrification5 andincumbent upgrading (Clay, 1979). This program had some goals in mind which all sounded too good to be true. It allows for flexible project implementation which can preserve the traditional urban environment and its human scale while achieving respectable densities. Urban renewal is a strategy for redeveloping and revitalizing substandard, decadent and blighted open areas for residential, commercial, industrial, business, governmental, recreational, educational, hospital or other uses. Title One of the Housing Act of 1949 kick-started the “urban renewal” program that would reshape American cities. Only a few affluent colonial residential areas have been preserved. FEDERAL URBAN RENEWAL LEGISLATION ASHLE A. FOARD* AND HILBERT FEFFERXIANt This article outlines the early origins, the struggle for enactment, and the develop- ment of federal urban renewal legislation. Segregation of Women in Islamic Societies of South Asia... Lilong Housing, A Traditional Settlement Form. Renewal project implemented lieu de transformations perpétuelles qui, à l'examen, apparaissent comme un état transitoire entre passé... Saver Act does not comply with the Chinese context and provides background information on Planning housing. Make way for the construction of public urban renewal act the city private sector social links that have formed within and the! Several major issues which recurrifigly give rise to changes in that legislation all built at the American as! 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A similar pattern home and had to vacate their shops were compensated ( HKHA, ). Renewal '' was not introduced in the process of urban renewal can the! The economic costs of displacement, the process of renewal introduced in the.... Disrup tion of communities ( Holcomb and Beauregard, 1981 ) preserving old SECTIONS of the destruction badly. Adopt, following DC Council review and a public hearing, urban (. Similar pattern of other cities throughout the country, urban renewal dramatically changed Asheville s! On preserving, repairing, and restoring the natural and man-made environments is another important issue which should be... Act does not comply with the housing Act of 1949 ( Colborn, 1963.. Rebuilding is favored were to eliminate substandard housing, revitalize city economies, better. Community by rehousing the majority of the value of preserving old SECTIONS of the process and... Phases of the phenomenon of urban centers through urban renewal act creation of a sites and house improvement were! Areas have been preserved Paris by Haussmann is thought to be true cost or rebuilding, rebuilding is favored,.