On June 22, 1940, France signed an armistice with Germany, which provided for the German occupation of the northern half of the country … Accordingly, with the start of the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, special mobile killing squads began systematically shooting the Jewish population on conquered Soviet territory in the rear of the advancing German armies; in a few months, up to the end of 1941, they had killed about 1,400,000 people. In London, de Gaulle announced his refusal to recognize the Vichy government, and instead established a new French government dubbed the Free French in London. This photo came from a camera found on German parachute troops who were taken prisoner. Photo provided by the German War Department. World War II began in Europe on September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. While some Norwegian colonies were established in north eastern North America as early as the 10th century, systematic European colonization began in 1492. (Photo credit: AP Photo/German War Department). The Allied invasion of Europe began with Operation Overlord on June 6, 1944. Having driven the German and Italian troops from North Africa and Sicily, the Allies decided to invade Italy in September 1943. Belgian women tearfully have goodbye to husbands and sons leaving for the front line as the threat of invasion hung heavily over their homeland, on May 11, 1940. This era began in the late 1400’s and lasted through the 1700’s. The aircraft in the right foreground is an RAF Coastal Command Lockheed Hudson on patrol. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, mobile killing squads (Einsatzgruppen) began … These European countries were part of the Axis Powers. Learn more about what led to Germany's aggression and how other countries reacted. The shell will be fired into the Nazi-occupied sector of the soldiers’ homeland. France signed an armistice in late June 1940, leaving Great Britain as the only country fighting Nazi Germany. The war between the U.S.S.R. and Germany began on June 22, 1941, with the German invasion of the Soviet Union. In eastern Europe and Yugoslavia, the Resistance came to control large tracts of land in more inaccessible areas such as forests, mountain ranges, and swamplands. Jacques Cartier undertook a voyage to present-day Canada for the French government, where they began the settlement of New France, developing the fur industry and fostering a more respectful relationship with many of the … In fact, for decades, historians, social scientists, and biologists have wondered: Why and how did Europe rise to the top, even when China and other societies were far more advanced? The relative lull in fighting which followed the defeat of Poland ended on April 9, 1940, when German forces invaded Norway and Denmark. French Prime Minister Paul Reynaud, who refused to surrender, resigned and was replaced by collaborationist Philippe Pétain. In the period from May 1942 to September 1944 more than 4,200,000 Jews were killed in such death camps as Auschwitz (Oświęcim), Treblinka, Belzec, Chełmno, Majdanek, and Sobibor. German bombs miss their targets and explode in the sea during an air raid on Dover, England, in July 1940. c) germany's invasion of poland. France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north and the German-sponsored Vichy government in the south. The German occupation authorities’ attempts to eradicate the Resistance in most cases merely fanned the flames, due to the Germans’ use of indiscriminate reprisals against civilians. Hundreds of thousands of British and French troops who had fled advancing German forces massed on the beach of Dunkirk, France, on June 4, 1940, awaiting ships to carry them to England. Years of international tension and aggressive expansion by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany culminated in the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. At the Wannsee Conference of Nazi and SS chiefs in January 1942, it was agreed that those Jews would be deported and sent to camps in eastern Poland where they would be killed en masse or made to work as slave labourers until they perished. World War II - World War II - German-occupied Europe: Hitler’s racist ideology and his brutal conception of power politics caused him to pursue certain aims in those European countries conquered by the Germans in the period 1939–42. Kuwait became an independent nation in 1961, a move that the Iraqi government did not support. In all 28 countries of the European Union, birth rates are low and the population is aging. The remains of a naval battle in Narvik, Norway in 1940. 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