Similarly, tapetum is not well developed in Gentianaceae family so some cells of sporogenous tissue become sterile and provide nutrition to remaining sporogenous cells. It occurs in few plants e.g. - The propagule grows to form an independent plant under favorable conditions. It is of two types – hypohydrophily and epihydrophily. There are two types of hydrophilic pollination Hypohydrophily and b) Epihydrophily. Types of tetrads : The arrangement of the microspores in tetrad condition are as … zostera, ceratophyllum. Zostera… Study 68 Reproduction in Organisms flashcards on StudyBlue. Generally, flowers are unisexual. Demerits • New and healthier varieties are not formed. At maturity, anthers produce needle like pollen grains. Pollination occurs at 2-celled stage of pollen. Highly specialized and unique pollen shapes (such as filiform in Zostera L.) with a highly reduced exine occur in the seagrass families (Cymodoceaceae, Potamogetonaceae, and Zosteraceae). There is no chance of cross-pollination. The pollen grains can, therefore, float below the surface of water. What is the function of the two male gametes produced by each pollen grain to angiosperms. Development that lead ... Nymphaea). Eg:Zostera,Ceratophylum,Hydrilla b)EPIHYDROPHILY: It occurs over the surface of … Epihydrophily :Plants which are pollinated outside the water. In Zostera, at least, adaptation to the marine habitat has involved less the acquisition of novel genes than the loss of a number of genes such as those involved in hormone response, photosynthesis and cell wall composition (H. T. Lee et al. This return to hypohydrophily is interpreted as a reversal to the ancestral state. The anthers are often versatile, swinging freely in air (Fig. Examples: Ceratophyllum, Najas Zostera and Hydrilla Specific gravity is found in pollen grains so they remains suspended in water. They have the same specific gravity as that of water. Chaupati, Ajmer. Example: Zostera marina, Ceratophyllum, etc. Vallisneria is a submerged dioecious freshwater aquatic plant. Four hydrophilous species —Zostera marina L ... (on the water surface) and hypohydrophily (below the water surface), al- though taxa exist that are both epi- and hypohydrophilous. Eg:Lemma,Zostera,Vallisneria TYPES OF HYDROPHILY: a)HYPOHYDROPHILY: It occurs below the surface of water. Pollination may take place in flowers occurring below the water level (Hypohydrophily) e.g. Zostera, Ceratophyllum etc) and (ii) Epihydrophily (Over the surface of water eg. Hypohydrophily :Plants which are pollinated inside the water e.g.Zostera, Ceratophyllum, Najas, etc. 2016; Olsen et al. when it is with the help of water, it may take place completely under water (hypohydrophily) or may takes place on the water surface (epihydrophily). Hypohydrophily in zostera. Zoophily; This pollination occurs by the animals. A flower is fragrant (or stinky) so it could attract pollinators. Flowers are small, light, without any colour 2. Light unwettable pollen grains are present in these plants. • Results in weak progenies, producing weaker seeds and plants. Hence the pollination occurs below the water. In Zostera, pollination occurs under water (hypohydrophily). In water hyacinth and water lily, the pollination occurs by insects. Plants, which occur below the water level are called sub-merged polants. Revision. Hypohydrophily – Pollination occurs bellow the surface of water. In Viola, the flowers get pollinated by bees. Hypohydrophily: Hypohydrophily is a true hydrophily that occurs beneath the surface of the water. (Banyan, Peepal, Fig), Saraca indica (Ashok), Aristolochia, most of the plants of Cruciferae and Rosaceae family. eg., Zostera marina, Ceratophyllum, etc. In case of fully submerged plants, the flowers are either pollinated via the water current, called hypohydrophily. Ex: Najas, Ceratophylum, Zostera. 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